Exchange of ideas from one person to others.
Ex: The teacher is in a class explained to students maths in English.
In the communication processes the following elements take part:


Material or conceptual reality on the one that treasts the message.
Ex: Maths contents.


Person who send the message to other person.
Ex: The teacher.


Person who received the message.
Ex: The students.


Physical way for that send the message.
Ex: The air.


Set of signs that exist between the sender and receiver.
Ex: The English language.


Signs or set of signs that is send by the sender with a code.
Ex:The explained.


Circumstance that surrounds the communicative act.
Ex: The class.

Communicative intention and situation:

They influence decisively at the time of the election of type of speech.

Connative function:

The sender calls the attention to the receiver.
Ex: Do you want to come with me to the cinema?

Contact functions:

It is used for open a channel two or more persons.
Ex: Do you continue there? (on the telephone)

Cultural varieties:

Different cultural levels from the speaker.


Cult level:

lexical wealth.

Half level:

It is a cultural variety in which the speaker does not have maximum cultural level.

Vulgar level:

they appear vulgarisms (incorrectnesses)

Idiomatic registries:

Different communicative situations.


The write language is different of the speakers.

Distribution of the space:

Position of the person on having spoken.
Ex: A teacher opposite of the pupils



Information proceeding from the receiver like response to the received message.
Ex: Yes, yes...


Part of the message that understand the receiver.
Ex: Good morning! How are you?


Anything that does not allow that the communication should be realized.
Ex: A spot on a writing.


Unnecessary excess of repetition of an information.
Ex: The girls are intelligent --> plural marks.

Don't verbal language:

Form of the communication that does not use words.
Ex: Traffical signs.

Body language:

moments with gestures.
Ex: To greet with the hands

Expressive functions:

The message reflects emotions, opinions, perceptions...
Ex: I am happy!

Linguistic mark:

word that usually we used in a determinate function.
Ex: Exclamation sings.

Lyrical gene:

The author express the ideas and feeling, for example the sadness.
The lyrical genre uses the poetic function and stylistic figures. Other common characteristics of a poetic text are:
-Concentration and brevity.
-There are not narrative elements.
-There is not a plot.
-It uses verse, prose and poetic prose.
-It uses rhythm and musical quality.

The verse:

In poetry, a verse is formed by a set of words with a rhythm unit. they are written on the same line. They make groups with others to create several options.

Narrative genre:

It is when the narrator tells the story of one or more characters in a space and time determinated.
Components of the narrative text.

A) The narrator.

Is who tells the narrative history. When the author start to write must choose the view for tells the success. It can be:

Omniscient narrator:

(Third person) He know all even the thinks of characters, and he expresses his opinions.

Witness narrator:

(Third person) The narrator describes what he sees. he does not say his opinions.

Character narrator:

(First person) A character become narrator.

B) The plot.

Plots are the event in the story.


(Tells success objectively) or dummy (tells history invented). Plausible
(It is credible because it is real) and implausible (tell incredible facts because are not reals.)
The plot is consist of four parts:


the action started in a place and time, and present the characters.


there is a problem that it has to be resolve.


It is the develop of the history.


It is the end of history. Can be:


history is finish of clear form.


Each one can interpret the end of history as it wants.
According to this element of the plots organized, we can speak of different narratives structures.

      • Lineal structure: The events are organized chronologically.
      • No lineal structure: the history started for the end and come back to the past.


The characters are being that they appear in the action of story. They can be classificate according to:

Their presence :

-Main character:

Character who have the main action. Can be: heroic or no heroic. Also there are plays of group main, in this plays there are not anyone character that stress over other characters.

-Secondary characters:

they company the main characters.

Their description:

  • They have few characteristics. Ex.: Lady and hero etc.
  • They have a lot of characteristics that change a long of time.

The function:

  • Brief: The actions of the characters don't change the argument.

  • Actant: the character appear decisively in one or more moments of the plot, and it is advance.

The dialogue can be:

Direct style:

the words are exactly as say the character.

Indirect style:

the narrator write the word as he want and he put linguistic marks for recognize the characters.

Free indirect style:

the narrator write the speech as he want without linguistic marks.

Non linguistic elements:

Intonation, signs, breathing, tones...
Ex: Exclamation, interrogation...

Poetic functions:

It is used to embellish the phrases.
Ex: Your eyes are as blue as the sea.


It analyzes the capacity that has the used of the language to influence the environment and others.

Referential function:

The sender indicate an objective fact.
Ex: Today is Tuesday

Spacial varieties:

Origin place.

Varieties of registry:

Communicative situation in which the emitter acts.



Way to speak according to the situation.


Situation in which the communication takes places.


Homogeneous linguistic system shared by a community of speaking.


Linguistic system that no difference of another system and that usually does not have a literary use.


Of all the varieties of the Spanish, it is the only variety that considers innovating a dialectal modality.


Two or more languages in someone or in a community.