Definition


  • Philosophy


Etymologically, philosophy mean “love a the wisdom”. the philosophy is a type of to knowledge that specific a group of characteristic specifics: the philosophy is a knowledge rational, radical, autonomous and critical.
The philosophy have originally in the Greece in VI a.C. century.














Philosophers


  • Aristotle

(III–IV in century) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He wrote on many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato andSocrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. He was the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.



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  • Plato


(IV – V in century), was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor,Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of natural philosophy, science , and Westerm philosophy. Plato was originally a student of Socrates, and was as much influenced by his thinking as by what he saw as his teacher's unjust death.


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  • Hume

David Hume (7 May 1711– 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher and historian, regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment. Hume is often grouped with John Locke, George Berkeley, and a handful of others as a British Empiricist


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  • Descartes

He was born in 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650,was a French philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and writer. He has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy", and much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which continue to be studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is also apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system—allowing geometric shapes to be expressed in algebraic equations—was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution
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Theories




  • Rationalism


(XVII-XVIII in century) philosophical trend characterized for defend that the rason is the only source of knowledge. The rationalists holded the existence of innates
ideas. This ideas, not procedent of the sensitives, but of the rason. The main rationalists are Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz.



  • Empiricism


(XVII-XVIII in century) philosophical trend characterized for defend that the sensitives doing possible the knowledge.The empiricists reject the existence of the innates ideas. Are having the induction as model of knowledge. The main empiriricists are Hume and Locke.




  • Existentialism


Philosophical trend characterized for having a radical conception of human being's liberty. Some philosophers who defend this theory are Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche.





  • Contractualism theory

it is the theory to say that the society is appear by the contract that concret in a pact. This theory is defend by Hobbes and Locke.



  • Naturalist theory


it is the theory to say that the
society is prior to individual. This theory is defend by Hegel and Marx.



  • Theory of human sociability



It is the theory to say that the human is unable and that the human is social by social in nature.








  • Logo


It is a rational explanation. Example: the logos socrático.


  • Myth


Allegoric statements led by gods and men that the marked one character didactic. It is characterized for personifying the natural forces and for giving an explanation of the cosmos and of different aspects of the reality. They are narrated in an arbitrary way and they were cosmogonies.



  • Cosmogonies


It is the set of stories and designed histories that try to give response to the origin of the Universe and of the man himself, which they us carry back to the original moment, in which the world was not formed(trained), where the constitutive elements are situated in disorder and the mythical statement provides the regrouping necessary for the global perception.



  • Arche

In the ancient greek phylosophy, arche is the beginning or the first principle of the world. The idea of an arche was first philosophized by Thales of miletus, who claimed that the first principle for all thing is water


  • Reason


For the philosophy, the reason is the faculty by virtue of which the human being is capable of identifying concepts and to question them. Of this form, it manages to determine the coherence or contradiction between them and can induce or deduce others different about which already it knows.




  • Perception


it's the organitation and interpretation of the sensations that have. There are two types: phenomenal and phychological.


Memory



it's the recogniton of the things that are perceived. Thanks to the memory the process of knowing is possible. Example: when I remember ¿alguna cosa?


Reality



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Thought



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Imagination

It is act across the elements that the memory provides to him. Example: I imagine a light bulb.



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Epistemology


It is or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.




Ontology


It is the philosophycal study of the nature of being existence or general reality,as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations.




Sensitive knowledge



It is that knowledge that is received by means of the senses. Example: the board is green, because I perceive it as green that is my eyes perceived it is green colour.




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Intellectual knowledge


It is the knowledge of the universal and necessary. It's given only in the human being thanks to the intelligence. Example: the universal concept of cats.




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The different of two knowledge are; that the sensitive knowledge is perceived for the senses and the intellectual knowledge is perceived for reason.








Concept


It is mental representation of something universal and necessary. Example: the man ( two legs, two arms, head...)



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Judgment

It is when to say something with the purpose of affirming it or to denying it. Example: every people are mortal. Other example is that the sun is a star.



Reasoning

It is intellectual operation that consists of chaining several judgment to come to a condition. Example: Luis is mortal, the math..




Formal logic


It is appeared in the XX century, the formal logic it's the expression for mathematic language. Have got a session call polyvalent that also study the true and false other values as: possible, probability...




Informal logic


It is the study of arguments of the today life.




Tautological proposition


It is when everything the values of indeed are true, we are speaking of this proposition.

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Contradictory proposition


It is when all the tables values are false, we are speaking of this proposition.

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Indeterminate proposition


It is when the tables of values are false or true we are speaking of this proposition.

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Evolutionism


It is told that the to be human begin of process of transformation of organism more simple a organism more complicate.



Contractuary theory

It is a theory that told that the society appear of the free agrement of the man, and is concretized in the pact. This theory is defend by Locke and Hobbes.


Naturalistic theory


It is a theory that told that the society is a state prior to the indiviadual. This theory is defend by Hegel and Marx.



Determinisms



Theological determinism


It is a determinism that states that all is meant to divine knowledge. St. Agustine said that although god knows everything he does not have to be. Later, begins a protestant reformation in stating that human beings are redirected by god from eternity to salvation.

Physical determinism


It is a determinism based on the science of mechanistic laws, explain any fact as a funtion of their movement. Being human is also subject to these laws.