MICROSCOPE PARTS:


1.Eyepiece lens :The lens that you look through to see the image of your specimen. They are usually 10x or 15x power.

2.Tube: It connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses. Mechanical tube length is the distance from the top of eyepiece tube to bottom of the objective.

3.Arm: It supports the tube and connects it to the base. Easier the restraint and transport .

4.Illumination: the beams of light cross the sample that must be very thin.

5.Stage: The flat platform in which you place your slides stage clips hold the slides in place.

6.Revolving: This is the part the holds two or more objectives lenses and can be rotated to easily change power.

7.Objective lenses: Usually you will find 3 or 4 objectives lenses on a microscope.

8.Rack stop: This is an adjustment that determines how close the objetives lens can get to the slide.

9.Base It is the bottom of the microscope , used of support .A well designed base will ensure that the image doesn ´t dance during focusing.

10.Condenser lens :The condenser lens is to focus the light into the specimen. It is a vital part of the illumination system, and it is designed to collect control and concentrate light from the lamp onto specimen.

11.Diaghragm or Iris:The diaphragm has different sliced holes and is to vary the interesty and size of the cone of light that is projected upward into the slide.
12.Electron microscope:it is a type microscope that uses a particle beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen.

13.Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM): it is the type electron microscope .It uses a high voltage electron beam to create an image.

14.Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM): it is the type of the electron microscope. Unlike the TEM, where electrons of the hight voltage beam carry the image of the specimen.

15.Reflection electron Microscope(REM): it is the type of electron microscope. An electron is incident on a surface.

16.Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope(STEM):it is a type of the electron microscope:The STEM rasters a focused incide probe across a specimen that has beam thinned to facilitate of electron scattered though the specimen.


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SCIENCES:



1.Ecology:It is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the interaction between organism and the interaction of these organism with their environment.
For example: The relation of elephants and savannah.

2.Embryology:it is the science that studies the embryo since fertilization to the fetus stage.The zygote establishes itself in the uterus of the eighth week after conception.

3.Embryo: it is the organism in the early stages the life.It is a multicellular diploid eukaryote. At the 38 or 40 weeks the embryo is ready to be born.
For example: Human embryo.



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4.Etnobotanica:It is the science that studies the relation between the vegetation and the persons.
For example: The cultivate of the lettuce lasts between 50 or 90 days.

5.Ethology: It is the science that study the behaviour of the animals. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science .
For example: Human ethology that study human behaviour.

6.Filogenia: It is the science that studies the relation of evolutionary between the alive being
For example: The origin of species by Darwin.

7.Physiology: It is the science that studies the organic function of the alive beings.For example: Plant physiology
Human physiology

8.Genetics: It is the science that studies the inheritance of the biological characters. Genes contain all necessary information.
For example:DNA genetics basic of inheritance



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9.Histology:It is the science that studies the structure and functions of the fabrics
The firts histological investigation were from 1600.
For example :Epithelial tissues.

10.Immunology:It is the science that studies the mechanics of defence the organism and his application.
For example: Immunodeficiency

11.Microbiology: It is the science that studies the form of the alive beings the modification or transformation that experiments.
For example: animals microbes.
12.Organography : It is the science that studies the structure and functions of the organs of an alive.
For example:study of the digestive uppers.


13.Palaeontology:it is the science that studies the fossils remains. Body Fossils are the principal types of evidence about ancient life.
For example: Trilobites.

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14.Systematic:it is the science that studies the classification of the species according to his evolutionary history or phylogenia.
For example:Phylogenetic trees.


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15.Taxonomy: it is the science that studies methods and ends of the classification of the beings in taxones.The made classification of agreement is applied by this science too.

16.Virology. it is the science that studies the viruses and their structure, classification, evolution and their way to infect cell for virus of reproduction.
For example: The measles.

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17.Zoology:it is the science that studies the animals organism, structure, function, behaviour, and evolution of animal

For example:the lion, monkey, birds, etc.


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18.Breathing: it is the process of takes oxygen in organims and expel carbon dioxide out of the body.


19.Nutrition: It is the process related to the capture of substances of outside and his transformation and utilization.
For example:Nutrition heterotropha and nutrition autotrof


20.Morphology:it is the science that study the form of the alive beings out the modification or transformations that experience.
For example:Radical symmetry.



21.Anatomy:it is a discipline of biology and medicine that study the structure are cells thing. It studies the structure of the bones and the different muscular fabrics.
For example One of are cells Division.




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22.Biogeography:It is a part of biology that study the distribution of biodiversity over space and time.
For example:The fishes from different oceans.

Pez gruñón:It live in the Atlantic ocean.

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GENERAL CONCEPTS:

1.Adjustement: It is the characteristic or set of characteritis of an organims which make increase his probability of survival in an enviroment.
For example :plants epifitas.
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2.Biodiversity:It is different fomrs of existing life in the Earth.The biodiversity increases from the poles up to the equator.
For example:Genetics diversity and of species.In Costa Rica there is near the 200 mammals.




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3.Ecosystem:It is composed of one or more habitats and the species that live inside.In the tropics exist many diversity of species and habitats.
For example: The sea.


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4.Habitats: It is place where the alive beings live
The species adapts to the habitat during his evolution.
For example: The beach and the desert.

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5.Species:Set of individuals who can reproduce between them.They leaving fertile descent.
For example:The species humanizes.



6.National Park:Natural place where it is protected to the animals and plants.
For example:Doñana National Park.


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7.Endemism:It is only species of habitats.They live in place with condiction that they aren't given in another places.
For example: Lince Iberico.


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28.Phylogenetic tree:Is a breaching diagram or “tree” showing the inferred evolutionaryn relationship among various biological species or the other entities based upon similarities or differences in their physical and/or genetic characteristic.




MICROORGANIMS:



1.King Moneras:It includes alive single-cell beings with procariota structure .
For example: Cyanobacteria.


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2.Bacterium: They are single-cell microorganims.They are prokaryotes and organism more abundant in the planet.
For example:Bacillus Anthraces.

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3.Prokaryotes cells :They are single-cells microorganims.They are smaller tahn the eukaryotes cells.
For Example: The Salmonella Bacterium.


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4.Eukaryotes: They are exist in the animals or plants.They are complexer than prokaryotes cells.
For example:Animals cells



Cells Parts:



1. Nucleus:The structure that contains within nucleoplasma,where fine the nucleolo and chromatin.The nucleolo it's relationated with the formation the ribosomas.The chromatin is formed for long filaments of DNA,
it is asociated to proteins.

2. Vacuole:Sack formed by membrane, in whose substances are stored.They involved in the cellular nutrition and in the regulation of the water quantity mineral salts of the cell.


3.Mitochondrial:It is constituted generally oval organelle by two membranes, a smooth outer and inner.In the inner layer is made of cellular respiration produces energy.

4. Ribosomes:It is an organelle that doesn't have membrane. It is constituted by two units of different size.They synthesize proteins.They can be so much in cells eukaryotes as in cells prokaryotes
.
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